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Doctors Education And Career Information

In India we have a special respect, love and affection towards doctors. The rich culture and heritage may be one reason, why a doctor enjoys a special attention and respect in the society, irrespective of the specialty or the number of degrees to his credit, but being a doctor isn’t that easy, years of rigorous education and then practice take all the juice out of life.

Unlike other western countries, a doctor in India is too engaged with his patients, In the good olden days, people also choose this profession as a service to the society and dedicated their lives.

The medical education in India is quite different from the west, If one wishes to become a doctor in India, after the senior secondary examinations, one has to appear for the entrance examinations that opens up the gates of a medical college, where one undergoes MBBS degree course that is of five and a half year duration, along with one year compulsory residency. Once the individual completes his/her program, they can start practicing as doctor, they can work as duty doctors or resident doctor. Further one can appear for MD/MS program, which is a higher postgraduate degree in the respective specialty.

MD in Medicine
MD is awarded to those medical graduates who are holding the MBBS degree, and after three years of study and passing an examination, which includes both theory and practical, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature. The original research element is not as prominent here, as this is primarily a clinical qualification resembling the professional doctorates of the USA.

MS in Surgery
Similarly in surgery, orthopedics and gynecology the equivalent degree is Master of Surgery (MS). DNB (Diplomate of the National Board) qualification is considered equivalent to the MD and MS qualifications, the difference in both the qualifications is that MD/MS is awarded by the Medical council whereas DNB is from the Diplomate of national board. That can be obtained by passing an exam conducted by national board of examinations after completing 3 years post MBBS training in hospitals recognized by the board.

DM in Medicine and MCh in Surgery
One can go for further specialization in medical or surgical fields, after the first postgraduate degree, which is either MD/MS or DNB. This requires three years of hard rigorous training and study and then passing an examination, both theory and practical, and the degree awarded is DM (Doctorate in Medicine, supers specialty doctor) eg DM in Cardiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Gastro-enterology etc. For surgical sub specialties the degree awarded is MCh, eg MCh (Cardiac Surgery), MCh (Neurosurgery) etc. The DM or MCh degrees are considered equivalent to the Fellowship training offered in the US and are considered as post-doctoral degrees in India, similar to the PhD in India. Once a doctor gains a specialized degree, He /She would further practice in a super specialty hospital.

DNB- Diplomate of National Board
The Diplomate of National board or DNB is the title provided by the National Board of Examinations. It is usually noted as DNB after the name of the individual who has been conferred it. The National Board of examinations is governed by the educational arm of the Health ministry of India. DNB degree was introduced by the Health Ministry in 1975 to provide bench mark standards for higher education in India and to meet global standards.

There are also several diploma and other short-term CME programs for doctor, programs that help them in skills development and knowledge up gradation to new international norms and guidelines.

Considering the population of India, the doctor patient ratio difference is much higher, though India is country where the maximum number of medical students graduate every year, brain drain is one of the major reasons why we have such huge difference in the doctor patient ratio. Doctors migrate to other developed in pursuance of better opportunities.

Slowly but steadily, India too is catching up to the international level and with emergence of many corporate hospital would help retain those highly qualified specialist doctor with in India.

What to Look For to Find the Best Forex Lessons and Training Courses For Beginners

If you want to learn to trade the forex you may want to know what the best forex lessons and training courses are. The forex can be a wonderful opportunity that can provide anyone the ability to create a very nice living or even a fortune. But without proper training it can also be a place to lose money.

There are many online courses that you can take that will teach you different aspects of forex trading. Different instructors have different styles and methods they use to trade. With a lot of courses a lot of their focus is on learning their system of trading. Often times the course is a sales pitch for you to buy their trading system or indicators.

This may be fine if you are an experienced trader and have had some success. It can be good to learn new ways of trading that can make your own trading more profitable. But as a beginning trader who has not yet had success, putting too much focus on learning a system or technique usually leads to failure.

There are endless numbers of trading systems that work. But before any system will be any good to you, you will have to learn to develop your own skills and habits as a trader. In order for any trader to be successful they have to learn trading discipline and learn how to keep their own emotions from sabotaging their trading system.

The best forex lessons and trading courses for beginners are ones that will focus on you as a trader and developing your own habits. If the course is focused too much on teaching you trading strategies and systems that’s probably not going to do you much good as a new trader and may even be harmful. Until you develop good trading habits it may just put you into information overload and paralyze your success.

Sometimes it can take months or even a year or two of practicing before a new trader can become consistent enough to make a good income. If you want to make money before then you are better off using an automated program or robot to trade for you. The one I use makes a very consistent profit and does it all for me on autopilot. This way you can have an income while you are free to learn to trade at your own pace. Or after using a good robot some traders just let the robot do all of their trading.

Preparing Society For the Cognitive Age With New Brain Research, Education and Tools

Groundbreaking cognitive neuroscience research has occurred over the last 20 years – without parallel growth of consumer awareness and appropriate professional dissemination. “Cognition” remains an elusive concept with unclear implications outside the research community.

Earlier this year, I presented a talk to health care professionals at the New York Academy of Medicine, titled “Brain Fitness Software: Helping Consumers Separate Hope from Hype”. I explained what computerized cognitive assessment and training tools can do (assess/enhance specific cognitive functions), what they cannot do (reduce one’s “brain age”) and the current uncertainties about what they can do (i.e., delay Alzheimer’s symptoms). At the same symposium, Dr. Gary Kennedy, Director of Geriatric Psychiatry at Montefiore Medical Center, provided guidance on why and how to screen for executive function deficits in the context of dementia.

I could perceive two emerging trends at the event: 1) “Augmenting Cognition” research is most commonly framed as a healthcare, often pharmacological topic, with the traditional cognitive bias in medicine of focusing on detection and treatment of disease, 2) In addition, there is a growing interest in non-invasive enhancement options and overall lifestyle issues. Research findings in Augmenting Cognition are only just beginning to reach the mainstream marketplace, mostly through healthcare channels. The opportunity is immense, but we will need to ensure the marketplace matures in a rational and sustainable manner, both through healthcare and non-healthcare channels.

In January 2009, we polled the 21,000 subscribers of SharpBrains’ market research eNewsletter to identify attitudes and behaviors towards the “brain fitness” field (a term we chose in 2006 based on a number of consumer surveys and focus groups to connect with a wider audience). Over 2,000 decision-makers and early adopters responded to the survey.

One of the key questions we asked was, “What is the most important problem you see in the brain fitness field and how do you think it can be solved?”. Some examples of the survey free text answers are quoted here, together with my suggestions.

Most important problems in the brain fitness field

- Public awareness (39%): “To get people to understand that heredity alone does not decide brain functioning”. We need to ramp up efforts to build public awareness and enthusiasm about brain research, including establishing clear links to daily living. We can collaborate with initiatives such as the Dana Foundation’s Brain Awareness Week and use the recent “Neuroscience Core Concepts” materials developed by the Society for Neuroscience to give talks at schools, libraries and workplaces.

- Claims (21%): “The lack of standards and clear definitions is very confusing, and makes a lot of people sceptical”. We need an easy-to understand taxonomy to help consumers and professionals evaluate claims focusing on cognitive functions, not on mental health diagnoses. The classifications should be grounded on a standardized research taxonomy. However, over time we may have to develop a “labeling system” based on the targeted cognitive domain and level of validation. Press releases often only add more confusion. We should blog study results in depth, become trusted resources to trusted reporters and differentiate new findings from previous ones.

- Research (15%): “Determining what activities are most beneficial to the user with the minimum level of effort or most overlap of already existing effort”. A high priority would be to ensure widely-accepted output standards (either commercial or following consensus processes such as the schizophrenia MATRICS Cognitive Battery) with a transparent architecture of outcomes and relationships covering the impact (brain-based, cognitive, behavioral performance) by age groups and by healthy vs. specific disorders.

- Culture (14%): “Integration within existing healthcare infrastructure will require research, education and cultural change. If brain fitness remains a niche alternative approach for the well-healed, we will have failed”. We need to improve the partnership with clinicians and their professional associations.

- Assessment (6%): “Development of standardized and easily accessible assessments of cognitive status that could be used by individuals and organizations to test the efficacy of cognitive improvement methods”. Perhaps the single most effective way to bring cognitive research into the mainstream conversation would be if people took an “annual brain check-up” serving as a cognitive baseline (as objective, functional information to track changes and to inform about interventions and diagnoses). Computerized assessments are already being used in a variety of contexts, from sports neuropsychology to military Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) detection. A recent report by the Alzheimer’s Foundation of America advocating for widespread cognitive screenings after the age of 75 or even 65 may open up a very interesting public policy debate.

- Exposure (5%): “Get information and products out to all the people, perhaps a drive to get them into public libraries”. We have a major opportunity now to help prepare society to thrive in this cognitive age. We need to improve research and focus on public awareness and standards for this opportunity to come to fruition.

Dr. Bill Reichman, CEO of Baycrest, puts it this way, “We have an opportunity to make major progress in Brain Health in the 21st century, similar to what happened with Cardiovascular Health in the 20th, and technology will play a crucial role”. For that prediction to come true, research on augmenting cognition will need to become mainstream. Neuroscientist Torkel Klingberg is optimistic, “In the future we may be as aware of cognitive function as we now are obsessed with calories, diets, glycemic index and cardiovascular training”.

The process in under way.

Copyright (c) 2009 SharpBrains